Kuan-Che Feng1 Ethan Ho2 Bhuvna Murthy3 Rushi Patel4 Antony Deluxe8 Wenqi Zhao5 Benjamin Chang6 Nicholas Zumba7 Chung-Chueh Chang1 Marcia Simon1 Miriam Rafailovich1

1, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States
2, Northfield Mount Hermon School, Gill, Massachusetts, United States
3, Huron High School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
4, Herricks High School, New Hyde Park, New York, United States
8, Wheatley High School, Old Westburry, New York, United States
5, Milton Academy, Milton, New York, United States
6, Woodbridge High School, Irvine, New York, United States
7, Columbia University, New York City, New York, United States

Polymers are known to be more combustible than other structural materials, and hence flame retardant formulations are frequently added. Recently it has been shown that many of these formulations, especially those containing halogenated compounds, are toxic and leach into surrounding water and soil. This concern is even more pressing when biodegradable polymers are used, where the degradation process facilitates the environmental release of the toxins. Here we report on a study of the toxicity of resorcinol diphosphate, RDP, a phosphorous based flame retardant additive. RDP is easily compounded into homopolymers or polymer blends when adsorbed onto clay, where it also facilitates compatibilization.
In this study, we show that when included into PLA, RDP appears to have no deleterious effects on cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. When RDP-Clay is added to polystyrene, it has an advantageous influence. Cells do not adhere to PS, but when RDP Clay is added, cell plating efficiency and cell proliferation is drastically improved and the doubling time is comparable to that of the cells plated on PS. In contrast to the cells on PS, those on the PS-RDP-Clay and PLA-RDP-Clay scaffolds underwent differentiation, where large amounts of hydroxyapatite deposits were found. With the appearance of what is believed to be hydroxyapatite deposits (biomineralization), RAMAN spectroscopy will be used to determine any possible developments of an extracellular matrix on the PS-RDP-Clay and PLA-RDP-Clay scaffolds. Additionally, RT-PCR will be conducted on days 28 and 42 in order to evaluate the presence of all genes that may be associated with osteogenic or odontogenic differentiation. Even though further in-vivo testing is required, these results indicate that the probable toxicity of RDP is low, since RDP-Clay preserves both cellular proliferation and function.