Conventional 3D printing technologies typically rely on open-loop, calibrate-then-print operation procedures. An alternative approach is adaptive 3D printing, which is a closed-loop method that combines real-time feedback control and direct ink writing of functional materials in order to fabricate devices on moving freeform surfaces. Here we demonstrate that the changes of states in the 3D printing workspace in terms of the geometries and motions of target surfaces can be perceived by an integrated robotic system aided by computer vision. A hybrid fabrication procedure combining 3D printing of electrical connects with automatic pick-and-placing of surface-mounted electronic components yielded functional electronic devices on a free-moving human hand. Using this same approach, cell-laden hydrogels were also printed on live mice, creating a model for future studies of wound-healing diseases. This adaptive 3D printing method may lead to new forms of smart manufacturing technologies for directly printed wearable devices on the body and for advanced medical treatments.