Linfeng Chen1 Maria Koifman Khristosov1 Cecile Saguy3 Alex Katsman1 Boaz Pokroy1 2

1, Materials Science and Engineering, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, , Israel
3, Solid State Institute, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, , Israel
2, The Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, , Israel

Nanoscale step structures have attracted recent interest owing to their importance in both fundamental and applied research, for example in adsorption, in catalysis, and in directing nanowire growth. In this in situ study, self-ordered vicinal-like surface structures were obtained by annealing of thin films of gold deposited on ultraflat Si/SiO2 substrate. Annealing at temperatures ≥200 °C efficiently promoted the formation of vicinal-like structures on the inner gold/substrate interface. Gold grains near the inner surface exhibited an orientation with the [111] direction very close to the substrate normal. Furthermore, the step periodicity depended on the grain/substrate orientation angle. Smaller misorientation resulted in a larger average step periodicity, similar to that seen in regular vicinal surfaces of gold single crystals. Formation of low-index terraces and atomic steps at the inner gold interface (while the silica surface remains ultraflat) can be considered as a kind of solid−solid dewetting. We suggest that the formation of vicinal-like structures could be attributed to the thermally activated surface reconstruction driven by minimization of the total surface energy, which includes the gold/substrate cohesion energy and the GB energies. The process is controlled by diffusion of gold from the inner gold/substrate interface, most probably to the grain boundaries and then to the outer surface of the film. Substantial bulk diffusion across the film during annealing at 400 °C for 4 h can also provide a required mass transport from the inner to the outer surface. This work contributes to the understanding of the atomic step structure formation at the gold/substrate interface, which will be helpful in the use of vicinal-like surfaces as templates for growing of regularly spaced nanostructures. It also offers a method for the in situ investigation of both the grain orientation and the grain interface step periodicity in a given grain, and then can be utilized for further explorations of vicinal-like surfaces.