Nanoscale transport and materials are critical to electrochemical energy storage, such as power density, cycling life and safety. In this talk, I will present two examples on advanced tools and fabrication to understand nanoscale transport phenomena and designing of nanoscale materials. The first one is based on an emerging Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy, which is three orders of magnitude faster than traditional Raman microscopy. Therefore it can clearly track ion transport in electrolyte together with lithium dendrite, to illustrate their correlations. A positive feedback mechanism has been visualized, which guide methods to suppress lithium dendrite. The second example is through designing nanoscale modification of interfaces between battery electrodes and solid electrolyte. Therefore, the stability between electrodes and electrolyte and the cycling life of corresponding full cells are significantly improved.