2, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, United States
A critical challenge for electrical energy storage is to achieve more useful work (w) and minimize the generation of waste heat (q). Batteries have often been approached at the macro level, where bulk parameters are identified and manipulated, with optimization as an ultimate goal. However, such a strategy may not provide insight toward the complexities of electric energy storage, especially when addressing multiple length scales in application and demands on devices. Beginning from a fundamental approach of identifying and reducing sources of localized resistance facilitates the understanding of the inherent heterogeneity of ion and electron flux both at multiple interfaces and length scales.At a fundamental level, it is necessary to identify and reduce sources of localized resistance and to understand the inherent heterogeneity of ion and electron flux at numerous interfaces found at several scale lengths within a battery. Benefits from experimentation and characterization over multiple length scales will be highlighted in this presentation.